Remember playing Chutes and Ladders when you were a kid? The rules are simple: spin a spinner (or roll a die) and move your piece that number of spaces. If you land on a ladder, then your piece "climbs up" the ladder and advances several spaces; if you land on a chute, then your piece "slides down" and loses several spaces. The game is based on sheer luck — and goes much deeper than you may realize.
Jain version Game of Snakes & Ladders called jnana bazi or Gyan bazi, India, 19th century, Gouache on cloth
Chutes and Ladders is originally based on a game called Snakes and Ladders, which dates back to ancient India in the 2nd century B.C. This game was a tool to educate children on traditional Jain and Hindu philosophies (although Islamic, Buddhist, and other versions of the game also existed), especially teaching karma and kama, or destiny and desire. Gameplay mechanics taught the concept of destiny or fate via the random, luck-based spinner or die roll used to determine movement, while desire was conveyed by the snakes and ladders.
The game also taught a moral lesson by representing the karmic cycle. The final square represented moksha (liberation or salvation) from samsara (the cycle of death and rebirth). A player would reach this point by climbing ladders (which represented rebirth into higher forms of life by doing good deeds) and falling down the board via snakes (which represented rebirth into lower forms by doing evil). Certain versions of the game pushed the moral and religious teaching even further by including religious or spiritual meaning in the size and shape of the board itself, the number of the final square, and the specific placement of the virtues and vices.
Ancient iterations also featured fewer ladders than snakes, as a reminder that a path of good is more difficult to follow than a path of sins. Specifically, one early version of the game contained 5 ladders (asceticism, faith, generosity, reliability, and knowledge) and 12 snakes (disobedience, debt, drunkenness, greed, lust, lying, murder, pride, rage, theft, vanity, vulgarity).
Game of Heaven and Hell (Jnana Bagi). Each square has not only a number but a legend which comprises the names of various virtues and vices. The longest ladder reaches from square 17 'Compassionate Love' to 69 'The World of the Absolute.'